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Artifact of the Month: Banking on History, Photograph of County Bank of Santa Cruz, c. 1900

Posted by on September 20, 2017

My name is Kameron Bell and I am an archives intern at the MAH. While at the MAH, I come across some amazing stories and artifacts with Collections Catalyst, Marla Novo. A few weeks ago Marla showed me a large photo of the Santa Cruz County Bank that was donated to the museum. My mission for this particular project was the interesting task of dating the photo. After taking a breath and cracking my fingers, I got to work. While taking a first glance at the photo, I noticed there were two buildings with visible signs on them, the Old County Bank of Santa Cruz and the Saddle Rock Restaurant. After that, I noticed three people in the photo, with one man clearly wearing a suit and a bowler hat. Then I noticed a few horse drawn carriages or horse drawn carriers and power lines running in front of the building.

County Bank of Santa Cruz, c. 1900

With this information I then went into research mode and began trying to piece together as much information I could. The first clue that I found was about the Old County Bank of Santa Cruz. Prior to becoming a bank, the site originally housed a saloon. After a fire in 1894 burned down the saloon, the Bank of Santa Cruz County then purchased the site and built a brick building that would be known as the County Bank of Santa Cruz (Ahha! Clue #1). So for Clue #1 we now know that the photo can’t be older than 1894, because the bank was erected in that year.

Once I had found information on the bank itself, I turned my attention to the Saddle Rock Restaurant. The Saddle Rock Restaurant turned out to be something of a Santa Cruz institution in the early days of the city. After being first opened by George Dobelich in 1895, the Saddle Rock was then taken over by young chef Peter Carstulovich in 1901, who came to Santa Cruz from the country of Damaltia. Four years later, Peter’s brother George joined him in the café business and the café remained at 73 Pacific Avenue until it moved locations in 1930 (Aha! Clue #2). With this information we now know that the photo can’t be older than 1895 due to the fact that the Saddle Rock Restaurant in the photo was erected in 1895. To further drive home the main clue, I believe the earliest that this photo could be is 1895.

After my excitement at nailing down a starting year, the only question that remained was what is the latest year this photo could have been taken? Well to answer this question, I feel that we need to go over some previously known facts about what is in the photo. 1. One man in the photo is wearing a bowler hat. 2. There is a large powerline running down the street. 3. There are no cars in the photo, only horses. When examining the first fact, I used a book entitled Hats: Status, Style and Glamour to find more information on the bowler hat. In the book, the author Colin McDowell explains that the bowler hat was in style from 1900-1914 (Aha! Clue #3). For the next fact, I did a little research on electricity in Santa Cruz. After gas was established in Santa Cruz in 1867, the city then pushed for electricity in 1884. By the early 1900s, most of the major buildings in Santa Cruz received electricity. Once powerlines were established at the Boardwalk in 1904, other lines were installed down Pacific Avenue to light the St. George Hotel (Aha! Clue #4). For the final fact pertaining to cars and horses, this one was a little harder to pin down. Cars didn’t really come to Santa Cruz around the same time as other places like New York mainly due to the fact that it was just harder to get them here. With that said however, Marla later informed me that well off families in Santa Cruz had cars as early as 1903 based on diaries housed in the MAH archives (Aha! Clue #5).

Before we get to a conclusion here’s a recap of what we know 1. The bank building was built in 1894 2. The Saddle Rock was established in 1895 3. Bowler hats were fashionable from 1900 to roughly 1914. 4. Power Lines down Pacific Avenue, from what I found, were established in 1904. And 5. Cars came to Santa Cruz as early as 1903 based on diary entries. With this information, I believe that the donated photo dates from 1895-1905. This conclusion however can be up to debate of course and I welcome it! It is always fun to learn more about history and the history of Santa Cruz.


To Know My Name: A History of African Americans in Santa Cruz County

Posted by on August 16, 2017

Phil Reader was a treasured local historian. His research revealed the stories of marginalized people and communities. He inspired the theme of MAH’s recent publication, Do You Know My Name? Phil was “a champion of the working stiffs, those who were born, lived, and died out on the edges.” (from the book’s preface by another local historian, Sandy Lydon)

 This morning I spoke with Phil’s widow, Lorraine. She will donate a large part of Phil’s research to the MAH archives. What follows is an excerpt of Phil Reader’s writings from 1995. Let’s not forget their names.

-Marla Novo, Collections Catalyst


Americans of African lineage are a people whose historical legacy is of bondage. Men and women stolen from their homes, stripped of their human rights, enslaved, imbruted and subjected to every imaginable form of exploitation. Yet under these most undesirable of circumstances, they have not only persevered, but expanded as a social, economic and cultural group.

At the very same time, however, assimilation into the “mainstream” of American life has been slow and fraught with difficulty–that is even if assimilation is a desirable goal in the first place. For this, the reasons are many and varied, and would require a voluminous amount of space to elucidate upon. But for the purposes of this study, suffice it to say quite simply that all to often, African Americans have found themselves the subject of racial and economic prejudice.

Throughout the two hundred year history of Santa Cruz County, however, African Americans are, without question, the invisible minority. Until recently their numbers were always comparatively small, and this, in a strange way, may very well have been a boon. Racism has always been a basic component in the socio-economic makeup of this community, but it has been the more visible minorities which have born the brunt of this mindless prejudice. Even a cursory examination of local history will reveal the reoccurring cycle of “scapegoatism” which has long plagued the non-white citizens of the region.

At the turn of the 20th Century and World War I, following wave after wave of European immigration, intense feelings of anti-foreignism and tendency towards isolation surfaced in America. The Great War, and the patriotic zeal which accompanied it, created the need for a new set of scapegoats and they were found in these newcomers with their strange languages, customs and ideas. Anyone espousing a so called “anti-American” ideology was suspect i.e. Trade Unionist, Socialist, or Anarchists.

Throughout every epoch of our local history, there was an African American presence in Santa Cruz County, but because of their small number, they were spared the intensity of the racial hatred experienced by other minority groups; no beatings, lynchings, or forced relocation. But this is not to say that the settlement of black pioneers in the Monterey Bay region was not without incident.

During the 19th century, the Watsonville school system was segregated for a long period of time and between the World Wars, Negro tourists were barred from hotels and auto camps in Santa Cruz. When the 54th Coast Artillery Company was stationed at Lighthouse field in 1942, numerous local businesses refused to serve the members of this all African American unit. In the decades following the Second World War, many of the new African American families moving into the area found housing difficult to obtain and on several occasions, white residents attempted to block the integration of their neighborhoods, sometimes resorting to arson. The only employment available to African American workers were in low paying service industries, including that of a barber, shoe shiner, or general laborer. So even here in Santa Cruz County, with its reputation for tolerance, the path of progress for citizens of African descent has not always been smooth.

Viewed as a whole, however, there is a singular thread of success and accomplishment which runs through the history of various African American communities which have existed in our region.

During the final decades of the 19th century, sizable African American settlements could be found in the Watsonville and Hollister areas. Both were vibrant and long lasting communities, which contributed much to the general populace. In some areas the race was represented by lone individuals, or single families.

There were Black sailors serving aboard the vessels that prowled the Pacific Ocean on voyages of discovery. Trappers and explorers like Allen Light and Jim Beckwourth were solitary men, who usually shunned the company of other men and saw the country while most of it was still quite new and unnamed.

But it was the gold rush of 1849, that great wave of western migration that brought a generation of African American pioneers to California. They came from both the North and the South, and were both free men and slaves. Many of them brought their families and, unlike their white counterpart, a surprising number of unattached females could be found in the groups. One noble lady, Miss Julia Cole, of the Gilmore Colony, was 104 years of age when she made the journey across the plains.

Jim Brodis obituary, Evening Sentinel, July 5, 1906

Once these intrepid pioneers established themselves in the Monterey Bay area, they went on to leave their mark on local history. Much has been said and written about London Nelson, the Carolina born ex-slave, who, through a generous bequeath, saved the floundering Santa Cruz School District. In Watsonville, Jim Brodis, a runaway slave, has made the history books and even had a street named in his honor.

Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbeck drew upon members of the local Black community as inspiration for characters in several of his major works. Crooks, the Black hired man in Of Mice And Men is patterned after Ishmael Williams, a club-footed teamster from the San Benito Valley. Steinbeck fondly remembered the Strother Cooper family as part of a section on civil rights activists in one of his later works, Travels With Charley.

Ida B. Wells

But beyond these few examples, the history of local African Americans has remained relatively unexplored. Virtually unmentioned in the annals of the Monterey Bay area is the fact that Ida B. Wells, one of the major figures in U.S. Black history, spent a large amount of time in Santa Cruz visiting with her family at their home on River Street during the 1890s. Also unheralded is the story of the first three Black graduates from local schools, all of whom went on to become the editors of large circulation newspapers.

This long hidden history is laced with stories of bravery and courage under the most adverse circumstances. Life under frontier conditions in early day California was difficult enough even for the relatively well-educated whites from the Northern and New England states. But add to this the double burden of slavery and discrimination and it is easy to see the outstanding quality of men and women who made up the pioneer African American communities along Monterey Bay.


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Abbott Square: Coming Soon to a Plaza Near You

Posted by on May 24, 2017

This post is by MAH Executive Director Nina Simon. Dive deeper into the decision to move the Abbott Square opening with a new post on Nina’s blog Museum 2.0. 

For years, we’ve been working with the community to develop a vision for a new creative community plaza in Abbott Square. For months, we’ve been under heavy construction to expand the plaza, plant a secret garden, and transform an office building into six restaurants and two bars. For weeks, we’ve been planning a big grand opening week of festivities to celebrate Abbott Square with you.

You can read more about Abbott Square in the Good Times cover story this week. It’s an epic community project to expand the MAH’s mission and impact.

We can’t wait to share Abbott Square with you… but we’re not quite ready yet.

From the beginning, our community has told us that food and drink are a huge part of what will make Abbott Square a fantastic community plaza. The food and drink are not ready. Abbott Square Market construction is taking longer than anticipated. We’ve decided to postpone the opening celebration until the whole project is complete and ready to open.

Here’s what you can expect:

  • June 2, join us for a special First Friday in the MAH and Cooper Street that includes a sneak preview of Abbott Square.
  • Throughout June, enjoy new, free community programs in Abbott Square, including Friday night concerts, Crafternoons, and family-friendly activities.
  • When the Abbott Square Market is ready to open, we’ll schedule a series of fun, diverse opening events to invite our whole community into this new community plaza.

Abbott Square is a huge community project, and we want to do right by our community. We look forward to sharing it with you, in its full glory, soon.

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Lime Kiln Legacies: Ten Years Later

Posted by on April 27, 2017

By Frank Perry

June 2, 2017, will mark the tenth anniversary of the publication by the Museum of  the book Lime Kiln Legacies: The History of the Lime Industry in Santa Cruz County.  As one of the co-authors, I thought this would be an appropriate occasion for a retrospective.  Did the book accomplish what the authors intended?  What new discoveries have been made?  And what new resources have become available for research?

Co-author Bob Piwarzyk and I used to joke that the main reason for writing this book was so we wouldn’t have to try to remember it all.  Several of the authors had been casually gathering information on the topic for decades.  As we set out to write the book, however, it soon became apparent that there were many gaps in our knowledge that needed to be filled.  Writing the book became a tool for developing a much deeper understanding of the subject than we had previously imagined.

Our main goal was to document the many facets of this important early-day industry—geologic history, lime companies, shipping, kiln technology, people, etc.  We also hoped that by demonstrating the industry’s importance, the book would encourage the preservation of the remaining historic sites.  Indeed, that has been the case.                               Research done for the book was used to help UCSC get the Cowell Lime Works Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places.  A friends group was then formed for the district, with a mission of restoration, preservation, and education.  (I have served as president, and Bob Piwarzyk has served on the advisory board since its founding.) With the help of donations and volunteer labor by students and members of the community, restoration work was done on some of the structures; the historic Cooperage building was braced; interpretive signs were placed around the district; and a member newsletter was launched with articles that dig even deeper into the history of the site.  A series of archaeological digs were conducted by students, including some as part of a class in field archaeology (with Lime Kiln Legacies as a text).

The Friends raised money for HABS (Historic American Building Survey) documentation of the historic Hay Barn, which was eventually restored for use by the Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems.  By holding events such as tours of the district, a conference on the history of lime manufacturing in California, and two local History Fairs, the Friends have continued to boost public awareness of this historic industry.  All of these efforts would have been much more difficult if not impossible without Lime Kiln Legacies as the foundation.

In 2013-2014 the book provided the basis for a traveling exhibition, “Crystals, Caves, and Kilns,” held at the Santa Cruz Museum of Natural History and the San Lorenzo Valley Museum, with support of the San Lorenzo Water District. An inventory and tour of lime-related historic sites on District lands was also conducted.

Since the publication of the book, several people have come forward who had parents or grandparents involved with the lime industry.  These people have generously shared family stories and marvelous historic photographs unknown to us when we did the book.  These have further enriched our understanding of the local lime industry and especially the contributions of immigrant lime workers.

Advances in technology have revolutionized historical research over the past ten years.  Resources such as census records and old newspapers, which had to be examined on spools of microfilm at the library, are now available online.  Perhaps even more importantly, these are now searchable.  No longer is it necessary to scroll through page after page of census records struggling to find a particular person or family.

Co-author Mike Luther read through every issue of the Santa Cruz Sentinel for the first decade or so of its publication, but it was impractical to read every issue after that.  We relied heavily on the work of the Santa Cruz Newspaper Indexing Project and searching for articles around key dates.  With the digitizing of the Sentinel, however, it is now possible to locate hundreds of articles previously unknown to us by searching for key words.  These have filled in more of the picture, providing additional facts and interesting details about the people and the process.

It took five years to research and write Lime Kiln Legacies.  We were glad when the book was published and the project was “over.”  In many ways, however, publication of the book was just a beginning.  It launched us into new projects and new discoveries. It has been especially rewarding to see others become interested in the subject, especially college students.  The industry that lasted for a century may ultimately take a century’s worth of research to fully understand it. There can be no doubt that the future will bring more exciting finds and new insights.

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Why We’re Building Abbott Square

Posted by on April 19, 2017


This post is the second in an ongoing series of posts by Executive Director Nina Simon for her blog Museum 2.0. Abbott Square opens in June—find out more at

The MAH fundamentally has two jobs: we bring art and history out into our community, and we invite our community in.

Over the past six years, we’ve done a great job bringing the community into the MAH. Our audience has quadrupled in size, and the people walking through our doors increasingly reflect the age, income, and ethnic diversity of our County. We’re proud that the MAH is a thriving museum AND community center for Santa Cruz County, a place for people of all walks of life to connect around our shared creativity and culture.

Visitors tell us how much they love the MAH, saying things like, “I love that the MAH holds very welcoming, accessible, open-minded and open-hearted space where people from every walk of life can gather and (re)create community.” Or “I love the MAH because it is a truly participatory space where diverse groups can enjoy, express themselves, and learn from/about/with others.” Or “The MAH is a living invitation of out-of-the box, beyond-perceived-walls thinking.”

There’s a lot of love inside the MAH these days. But in the spirit of that last visitor comment, we feel it is our responsibility and our glorious opportunity to spread that love beyond our walls. If we only build community inside the building, we’re trapping ourselves and our visitors in a bubble. We want to break out. We want the MAH’s inclusive creative energy to ripple across our county. Our vision is to build a stronger, more connected community through art and history. If we really want to achieve that vision, we’ve got to get to work in all the places where people live, work, and play.

We’ve experimented with beyond-the-building engagement through projects like the Pop Up Museum, Evergreen Cemetery restoration work, and partner-led festivals. I’ve seen again and again how outdoor programming has impact beyond what can happen inside the museum. Some casual passers-by jump in to participate, and even when they don’t, they get a bit of a contact high from the fact that art is happening as part of their urban experience. The engagement may be less intimate and focused, but the opportunity for ripple effects is greatly increased. The impact outdoors is wider and wilder than anything that happens inside the walls of an institution.

So we’re going big by expanding into Abbott Square, the under-utilized plaza on the MAH’s front doorstep. The “why” behind Abbott Square evolved over time, with four main reasons at the core:

  1. marketing and audience development
  2. meeting community needs
  3. achieving our mission / strategic alignment
  4. strengthening our business model

When we started the project four years ago, the primary reason to expand into the plaza was about marketing and audience development. Abbott Square physically connects the MAH to the main drag of downtown Santa Cruz. Four years ago, we were in the early stages of expanding and diversifying MAH programming, and we saw Abbott Square as a key physical connection between the growing museum and the vibrant creative life of downtown. Furthermore, we learned from a Latinx-focused ethnographic study that outdoor programming was particularly appealing to local Latinx families. We wanted to reach more people, and more diverse people, and we saw Abbott Square as a great place to do it.

Once we started community conversations about the potential for Abbott Square, the “why” shifted to community desire for a town square. While locals were interested in the MAH, they were MUCH more interested in having a downtown gathering place. We don’t have a town square in Santa Cruz, and people feel the acute lack of creative public space. What started as being about the MAH became more about the community. Community members’ expressed needs and desires drove the planning of Abbott Square and led to major decisions we would not have made if this project was “just” a MAH extension (more on community involvement in next week’s post). While this was exciting, it was also a bit disconcerting. At times, it felt like we were taking on a new sister project to the MAH in Abbott Square, as opposed to an expansion of our existing work.

To my grateful surprise, that sense of separation resolved itself as the MAH’s strategy evolved in alignment with the project. While we were designing Abbott Square with community members, we were also strengthening the MAH’s overall commitment to community-driven programs. Three years ago, we wrote a new MAH theory of change with an impact statement to build a stronger, more connected community. We knew this impact could only happen if we expanded our work further beyond our walls.

Through the lens of our new theory of change, suddenly Abbott Square was core to our overall institutional strategy. Just as we have opened the MAH up to more diverse people, perspectives, art forms, and historical narratives over the past few years, now we are physically opening our facility with new offerings that are accessible and appealing to a much wider audience—including thousands of people who might not ever set foot in a museum. The people who enjoy Abbott Square’s whimsical Secret Garden, locally-rooted public market, and free outdoor performances will all experience the MAH—whether they also visit exhibition galleries or not. This intersection is not entirely a coincidence—the MAH and the Abbott Square project grew up together—but it was reassuring to realize that the community’s interest in Abbott Square was in our strategic best interest, too.

And finally, a fourth “why” was key throughout planning: Abbott Square was designed to generate revenue and maximize use of our real estate assets. The MAH has an unusual business model in that part of our revenue comes from managing Abbott Square plaza and an adjacent commercial office building. By incorporating a food market in the ground floor of that building (something community members urged us to do as part of the project), we are hopefully building a sustainable revenue source into Abbott Square. At the same time, we’re transforming a “high income, low mission impact” asset into a “higher income, high mission impact” asset. Hopefully.

I firmly believe that more creative institutions should be in the public space business. If we care about building community, we can’t just do it within our walls. We live in a time—especially in the United States—when people are more divided than ever. Space is contested, privatized, and segregated. Working on this project has opened me up to the incredible opportunities we have to claim public space for our communities and for the values that underlie our work.

Many people call this work “creative placemaking.” The idea is that creativity—not just sculptures or murals but events, art-making, art-sharing, commerce—can help turn an intersection or a riverfront or a concrete wedge into a place with a story and an identity. Creativity and culture connect us to place and to each other.

Yes, art is place making. But art is also future making. Art rejects the limitations of what we are and what we have been. It inspires us to imagine what we will be.

I want to imagine a future of downtown Santa Cruz in which creativity, commerce, and community are all welcome. I want to imagine a future in which the spirit of welcome and inclusivity that permeates the MAH spreads throughout our whole town.

We’re trying to build a slice of that future in Abbott Square. What future do you want to build in your community?

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